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Data used at the interactive map on natural resources
The production data presented here is mainly based on the publication of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) "Mining in Germany"
Data on natural resource extraction in Germany
The production quantities of hard coal, lignite, crude oil, natural gas, potash salt, special clay, rock salt and industrial brine are based on the information in 'Der Bergbau in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2015 (Mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015)' published by the BMWi (German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy). It is an annual publication, which includes information about the extraction of natural resources in Germany.
The data on the extraction of the natural resources stems from mining authorities and includes all usable natural resources extracted under the supervision of the responsible mining authority in accordance with the regulations of the BBergG (German Federal Mining Act) and products created or manufactured by processing the above natural resources. This means that the statistics do not provide a comprehensive picture in the case of natural resources that are only partially covered by mining law. The data on the production quantities of quartz gravel and quartz sand [Federal Association of Mineral Resources – MIRO 2016], gravel and sand [MIRO 2016], broken natural stone [MIRO 2016], limestone, marl and dolomite stone [Federal Association of the German Lime Industry – BVK] and on ashlar [German Natural Stone Association – DNV] was therefore obtained from the respective industry associations. The data on china clay is based on the estimation of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources [BGR 2016], since the value of 3.7 million tons [BMWi 2016] does not refer to the products available on the market.
Furthermore, the data on the value of the associated production volumes is not included in the official statistics. Data is therefore taken from other sources, such as the associations’ annual reports or from various publications of the Federal Office of Statistics. In detail, the production values of hard coal, lignite, crude oil and natural gas are based on estimates from the 2015 average cross-border prices [BGR 2016]. The values for potash and potash salt products, special clays (values according to Destatis), rock salt and industrial brine (values according to Destatis) and china clay (values according to IM 2016 (Industrial Materials) are also taken from the same publication. The values for the production of quartz sand and gravel, gravel and sand and broken natural stone are taken from MIRO 2016. The values for the production of natural stone [DNV 2016] and of limestone, marl and dolomite stone are taken from the data provided by the Federal Office of Statistics. The data was not subjected to any specific verification procedure.
Plans are in the pipeline to end German hard coal extraction in a socially-acceptable manner by 2018, since the industry has been steadily declining for years. 6.2 million tons of usable output were extracted in 2015. An approximate value of €423 million for this quantity can be estimated from the average 2015 cross-border prices for power station coal.
At 178.1 million tons, lignite extraction remained around the previous year’s level. According to the estimate of the BGR, this corresponds to a value of €2,431 million.
German crude oil production in 2015 was 2.41 million tons. As in the case of hard coal, the BGR again used the average 2015 cross-border prices as a basis for estimating the value of crude oil production at €859 million.
2015 saw 9,387.62 m³ of natural gas (incl. petroleum gas) extracted from sites in nine German Federal States. As in the case of crude oil, the BGR again used the average 2015 cross-border prices as a basis for estimating the value of natural gas production at €2,064 million.
Two companies in Germany extract potash salt and magnesium salt. The usable extracted output in 2015 amounted to 5.7 million tons in the form of potash products [ BMWi 2016 ]. 1.5 million tons from other by-products of potash production must be added to that figure [ BMWi 2016 ]. The BGR calculated that the total quantity has a value of roughly €2,156 million.
According to the German mining authorities, 6.40 million usable tons of special clay were extracted in Germany in 2015. The clay in question is high-quality material for the ceramic industry and refractory use. According to the Federal Office of Statistics, the BGR calculated the value of this amount at €148 million.
Rock salt and industrial brine
13.7 million tons of rock salt and industrial brine (NaCl content) were extracted in Germany in 2015, according to the German mining authorities. The BGR calculated the value of that quantity to be €566 million, based on value information from the Federal Office of Statistics.
China clay or kaolin is used mainly in the paper industry and in the production of fine ceramics. According to information provided by the German mining authorities, 5.3 million tons of kaolin-bearing raw material were extracted in 2015, of which 3.8 million tons were usable [ BMWi 2016 ]. Around 1.1 million tons of saleable kaolin products remained after treatment and this quantity was valued at €119 million.
Quartz gravel and sand
In 2015, 9.7 million tons of quartz gravel and quartz sands 1 were extracted in 2015, valued at €205.5 million. Among its other uses, the raw material is used as vitreous sand, foundry sand and as a filler in chemical and building chemical products.
Gravel, sand and broken natural stone
Around 95% of the gravel, sand and broken natural stone extracted today is used in the building and building materials industries [BGR 2016], where they are used in underground engineering and in the manufacture of concrete amongst others. In 2015, 239 million tons of gravels and sands (with a value of €1,510 million) and 210 million tons of broken natural stone (valued at €1,439 million) were extracted. 2
Ashlar is first extracted in raw blocks and then sawn into plates of different formats, which are e.g. for facade cladding, wall and floor coverings, window sills, stair steps and gravestones. In 2015, 0.44 million tons of this natural resource were extracted, with an estimated value of €52 million.
Limestone, marlstone and dolomite
48.9 million tons of limestone, marlstone and dolomite valued at €719 million were extracted in 2015. Limestone is used in many sectors, including home and road construction and in iron, steel, cement, glass and foodstuffs production.
[DESTATIS] – Statistisches Bundesamt (versch. Jg. a): https://erhebungsportal.estatistik.de/Erhebungsportal sowie (versch. Jg. b): Produzierendes Gewerbe. https://www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/Thematisch/ IndustrieVerarbeitendesGewerbe/Konjunkturdaten/ProduktionJ.html
[DNV 2016] – Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband e.V. (2016): URL: https://www.natursteinverband.de/
[IM 2016] – Industrial Materials (2016): IM Price Database
[MIRO 2016] – Bundesverband Mineralische Rohstoffe e.V. (2016): „Die deutsche Gesteinsindustrie. – Bericht der Geschäftsführung 2015/2016
Data on contribution to the GDP
The data was taken from the current national accounts of the Federal Office of Statistics ( PDF and EXCEL ). The ‘Mining and Quarrying’ economic sector includes the extraction of naturally-occurring solid mineral resources (coal, salt, ores, quarried natural resources), liquid mineral resources (crude oil) and gaseous mineral resources (natural gas).
In the statistical classification of the economic sectors (WZ 2008), the ‘Mining and Quarrying’ segment encompasses the entire section B with the following sub-sectors: coal mining (WZ08-05); crude oil and natural gas extraction (WZ08-06); ore mining (WZ08-07); Quarried natural resources, other mining products (WZ08-08), and the performance of services for mining and for quarrying (WZ08-09). A detailed list of these sub-sectors can be found in the publication ‘Klassifikation der Wirtschaftszweige’ (Classification of Economic Activities) of the Federal Office of Statistics, pages 175 to 185. It should be noted that section B (‘Mining and Quarrying’) includes the sub-sector ‘Provision of Services for Mining and Quarrying’ (WZ08-09). This, however, does not include classical extraction activities.
In addition, there are other companies which extract natural resources; however, these are allocated to a different economic sector due to their main activities and are therefore not included in the following.
Data on employment
Data on the employees was taken from the database of the Federal Employment Agency (Bundesagentur für Arbeit) (PDF und EXCEL).
Data on exports
The German natural resources export data is based on information on the goods divisions of the goods catalogue for production statistics, Federal Office of Statistics. These calculations include ‘coal’ (GP09-05), ‘crude oil and natural gas’ (GP09-06), ‘ores’ (GP09-07) and ‘quarried natural resources, other mining products’ (GP09-08). The data on the exports between 2012 and 2016 was taken from the Genesis Online Database by Destatis on May 26, 2017. The data for 2015 can be found on the website of the German Federal Office of Statistics. The information on the re-exports of natural gas is taken from the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources ( BGR 2016 , Tables 5, 28 and 29).
Data on government revenues through taxes
The tax amounts shown in the table are based on special evaluations of the corporation tax statistics from 2010 to 2012, the trade tax statistics of 2010 and 2011 and the statistics on the partnerships and communities from 2010 to 2012, as well as estimates and updates of the Federal Ministry of Finance.
Only the ‘Mining and Quarrying’ economic sector was addressed. The ‘Mining and Quarrying’ sector includes the extraction of the following naturally-occurring mineral resources: solids (such as coal, salt and ores), liquids (crude oil) and gaseous resources (natural gas). A detailed list of these sub-sectors can be found in the publication ‘Klassifikation der Wirtschaftszweige’ (Classification of Economic Activities) of the Federal Office of Statistics, pages 175 to 185.
As the most recent statistical data concerns the years 2011 and 2012, the subsequent years have been updated until 2015. The rate of change in gross value added by the economic sector B, ‘Mining and Quarrying’ as stated in the national accounts was used for the purpose of the update (source: ‘VGR – Wichtige Zusammenhänge im Überblick’ (National Accounts - An Overview of Key Facts), page 20 f.). The gross value added by the economic sector B, ‘Mining and Quarrying’ in 2016 is not yet available.
The tax amounts reported for the natural resources sector are amounts that had to be paid by the companies for the respective year (so-called assessment year). The statistical time frame is therefore different from that of the total income of the state which is recorded in the year of the inflow (cash year).
The total reported income of the state is taken from the Federal Government’s cash statistics (total public budget – ÖGH). The state’s total income includes not only income from taxes, but social security contributions, proceeds from the disposal of assets or investments (government bonds) as well as fees, administrative income and profits from state enterprises. Detailed explanations and definitions of the total public budget can be found on the website of the Federal Office of Statistics:https://www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/Thematisch/FinanzenSteuern/ThemaFinanzen.html
Statistical data from the years 2010 to 2012 was assessed. For the purposes of the assessment, the corporation tax amounts imposed on unlimited and limited corporation taxpayers before the deduction of capital gains tax or the like were taken into account. The update for the years 2013 to 2015 was made on the basis of the development of the gross value added of the economic sector B, ‘Mining and Quarrying.’
Trade tax in Germany is collected by more than 11,000 municipalities according to individually determined and thus differing rates. The basis for the calculation of the trade tax is trade income. This is the profit determined pursuant to the income tax law or the corporation tax law. The amount of trade tax may be increased or reduced by additions and reductions as per the German Trade Tax Act. On the basis of the business income, a taxable amount is calculated uniformly throughout Germany and the trade tax to be paid by the company is determined by applying the respective tax factor of the municipality to the taxable amount. Trade tax is levied on corporations, partnerships and natural persons with their commercial income.
Only the taxable amounts determined during the assessment procedure are included in the trade tax statistics. The Federal Office of Statistics used the results of a special evaluation of statistics for the years 2010 and 2011 to assign the positive taxable amounts of the companies in question to the relevant tax rates charged by the respective municipalities. This enabled the trade tax to be determined in an approximate manner.
Natural persons, as individual entrepreneurs or members of a partnership, can also make profits in the natural resources extractive sector – and are therefore subject to trade and income tax. However, income tax statistics do not include any breakdown by economic sectors, therefore this statistic could not be used for the present study. The statistics on partnerships, however, are broken down into economic sectors, but they are only used to determine the earned income, which is subject either to corporation tax or income tax imposed on the parties involved (co-entrepreneurs).
Due to the above-mentioned problems, the income tax attributable to the natural resources extractive sector was estimated by means of the following procedures, using the trade tax statistics and the statistics on partnerships and communities:
An approximate profit was determined for the individual entrepreneurs, by means of retroactive calculation, using the positive taxable amounts assessed in the trade tax statistics for this group of persons. The sum of the income of partnerships, which, in the relevant industry, is attributable to natural persons as participants, was assessed from the statistics on partnerships and communities.
An average tax rate of 28.6 % was applied to this profit or to this sum of earnings. This average tax rate was calculated using a microsimulation model for persons with commercial incomes who pay income tax. With the trade tax offset against the income tax, the results in the table show the approximate income tax amounts.
A solidarity surcharge is levied as a supplementary tax to income tax and corporation tax. It generally amounts to 5.5 % of the established corporation tax and income tax (see previous explanations).
Income tax and the solidarity surcharge are not part of the D-EITI payment reconciliation.
Data on extraction and minesite royalties
The Federal States’ revenues from extraction royalties are made available to the Federal Ministry of Finance (BMF) by the states for purposes related to the national financial equalisation mechanism within the framework of monthly reporting on tax revenues. They are published in the settlements of the financial equalisation of the Federal States on the website of the BMF.
Only few Federal States publish their revenues from minesite royalties in their budgets. A summarised overview of the minesite royalties is not available. Most Federal States publish accumulated minesite and extraction revenues in their individual budgets. The revenue from the 2015 minesite royalties is only available for three Federal States: Bavaria, Brandenburg, and Niedersachsen.
Data on turnover of quarried natural resources
The data has been extracted from the ‘Annual Report for Business Operations for 2016’ (Jahresbericht für Betriebe 2016) issued by the Federal Office of Statistics. This report refers to companies with at least 20 employees. As this statistical data is not the same as the statistical data on employees covered by the mandatory social security scheme, the data in the report does not cover all extractive business operations (EXCEL).
Data on rehabilitation aid
The data on the amounts of the subsidies was taken from the current subsidies report of the Federal Government. This report is published every two years (PDF).
Data on the reconciliation report
The information on the reconciliation report can be found in this Excel file . The reconciliation report was prepared for the first report by the Independent Administrator of the D-EITI (Warth & Kleingrant Thornton, Düsseldorf). Further explanations for the preparation of the reconciliation report as well as for the selection of the relevant natural resources, companies, and payment flows are presented in this pdf . You will also find recommendations from the Independent Administrator for future reporting under D-EITI.
Aggregated data D-EITI report 2016
The multi-stakeholder group (MSG) of the German Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (D-EITI) has opted for the implementation of open data within D-EITI. The Open-Data-Concept is only applicable for data and information, which is public and/or allowed to be published by the MSG within the framework of the D-EITI, and only within the framework of the applicable legal bases. All data is freely available without restrictions according to the CC BY 4.0 license as well as the data license Germany version 2.0.
2 All data taken from [MIRO 2016]. The amount of extracted gravels and gravel sands indicated in [BMWi 2016] is significantly less, since only very few of the companies are subject to mining law.
1 In [BMWi 2016], a different classification is considered, namely that of quartz and quartz sand. Of these quartz sand and quartz gravel are only a sub-group, which is not specifically designated according to mining law. The data from [MIRO 2016] is therefore used to estimate the value.